This is the basic text view. The Russian Federation has a centralized political system, with power concentrated in a president and a prime minister, a weak multiparty political system dominated by the ruling United Russia party, and a bicameral legislature Federal Assembly. The country has an estimated population of million. Security forces generally reported to civilian authorities; however, in some areas of the Northern Caucasus, there were serious problems with civilian control of security forces. There were numerous reports of governmental and societal human rights problems and abuses during the year.
U.S. Department of State
Retreating Rights – Tajikistan: Introduction - The Foreign Policy Centre
Tajikistan is situated between Kyrgyzstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west, Afghanistan to the south and China to the east, comprising parts of the Ferganna Valley in the north and the Pamir mountain range. While many cultures had settled the area throughout history the modern Tajik people trace their ancestry back to the Samanid Empire AD , who ruled the area from nearby Samarkand and Bukhara, with post-Independence Tajikistan naming its currency, the somoni, after Samanid leader Ismail Samani. The land that comprises Tajikistan today was gradually taken by the Russian Empire from the Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Kokand in the period between and During the First World War, opposition to forced conscription helped spark a revolt by the Basmachi movement that would wage both conventional and guerrilla war against both Imperial Russian and then Soviet forces into the early s with the goal of Muslim independence from Russian control in Central Asia.
Retreating Rights – Tajikistan: Introduction
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